The three formulas of Stephen Hawking to travel in time
The three formulas Stephen Hawking to travel in time
“Is it possible to travel in time?” Can we open a portal to the past or find a shortcut to the future? ". The great British physicist Stephen Hawking made these questions in an article published in Daily Mail cosmologist offered not one, but three realistic theoretical formulas to answer your question, three proposals that may make it possible for an idea has long been a scientific heresy. In their view, such a venture is not as preposterous.
To begin, Hawking suggests that it is essential to open the mind to the idea of the fourth dimension: time. The scientist uses a very simple example, that of driving. When we travel by car and drive in a straight line travel in one dimension. If we turn right or left, we add a second dimension. If you also go up or down a mountain road, we find the third. The fourth dimension is time, but how do we find a way to travel through it? :
"The science fiction movies show a large power-hungry machine that creates a tunnel through time. A time traveller, a brave, ready for who knows what into the tunnel and emerge who knows where (...) The reality may be very different from this, but the idea itself is not so crazy, "admits Hawking in his article. For physicists, the tunnels can be time wormholes. "They are all around us, in the cracks of space and time, but are too small to see them," explains the scientist. "At the smallest scale, even smaller than molecules and atoms, quantum foam exists. This is where there are wormholes, small tunnels or shortcuts through space and time constantly form and disappear. "
Unfortunately, these tunnels are too small for a human being can look through the keyhole. They measure only a thousand million billion trillionth of a centimetre, but it may be possible to take one of them and make it large enough for human beings or even a spaceship. In this way we could travel to other planets located light years away and "maybe the dinosaurs on Earth could see a ship landing."
Of course, the wormhole is a small problem, which Hawking calls "the paradox of the mad scientist." What if a scientist uses the hole to shoot his past him? Now he’s dead, but who shot? It is a paradox, it doesn’t make sense. It’s the type of situation that causes nightmares for physicists. This kind of time machine would violate a fundamental rule that governs the entire universe: the causes of the effects happen before, and never the reverse. The trip back would be impossible, but what about the future?
2) Black holes:
"We think that time flows like a river, at different speeds in different places, and that is the key to travelling in the future," says Hawking. This idea was proposed by Albert Einstein one hundred years ago, realizing that there should be places where time runs slower and others where it is accelerating. "He was right and the proof is over our heads" in the space, says Hawking. The time goes faster in space. Within each spacecraft is a very accurate clock, but despite this, everyone wins about a third of a billion seconds each day. The problem is not with the clocks. What happens is that the mass of the Earth drags time and slows.
In the center of the Milky Way, 26,000 light years away, is the heaviest object in the galaxy: a super massive black hole slows the time more than anything else in the galaxy. "It’s like a natural time machine," says Hawking. If a spacecraft went into orbit in the hole, it would take 16 minutes to complete one orbit to the space agency that would control the mission from Earth. For the astronauts, would only last eight minutes. If you spend five years in orbit, actually have been ten. When will they come to Earth, all the others have aged five years older than them. The problem? Approaching a black hole is too dangerous.
3) Travelling at nearly the speed of light:
Third time lucky. For Hawking, the solution may travel very fast, even more than the required speed to avoid being swept away by a black hole. According to Hawking, travelling at nearly the same speed of light, 186,000 miles per second, take us into the future. To explain, the scientist imagines a super-fast train that would circle the Earth seven times per second, which does not reach the speed of light, something that the laws of physics forbid. Then time begins to run slowly on board, as if we were near a black hole, but more so, as in slow motion. In one week, the train would travel one hundred years in the future. Of course, building a train to reach those speeds is impossible, but we have built something very similar: LHC particle accelerator of the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. We know particles, pi-mesons, which usually disintegrate but ipso facto, when they are accelerated to nearly the speed of light, lasting 30 times longer.
Hawking concludes that if we travel to the future, we just have to go very fast, something that is only possible in space. This would require a ship 2,000 times faster than the Apollo 10, of enormous size and that could carry a lot of fuel, enough to accelerate to nearly the speed of light. "Four years after takeoff, the spacecraft will begin to travel in time. For every hour on the ship, two would on Earth, "he explains. After two years of full speed, the spacecraft would reach its peak, 99% of the speed of light. Then, one day on board would be a year on Earth. Our ship would fly to the future.