One morning of March two young scientific, the physicist Francis Crick and the biologist James Watson announced that they have been obtained the structure of the DNA. This discovery, that revolutionized the world of the biology, was enunciated in 1953. In 1951 Watson was installed in Cambridge to share with Crick the adventure of determining the structure of the DNA. At this moment, the only available technology to visualize the structure of big molecules was the diffraction of X-rays, that consist in something similar to X-raying a molecule.

Parallel, the physicochemical Rosalind Franklin and the biophysicist Maurice Wilkins realized studies crystallographic of diffraction of X-rays on molecules of DNA. In 1952 Rosalind Franklin obtained a photography of diffraction of X-rays that it revealed the spiral structure of the molecule of DNA. Wilkins, without the consent of Rosalind, gave the photo to Watson and Crick. For them the image constitute a definitive information to determine that the structure of the DNA corresponded to a double propeller, and not triple since it was thought. Rosalind Franklin died in 1958 with 37 years old, four years after Watson, Crick and Wilkins got the prize nobel of physiology and medicine for his contributions to the discovery of the structure of the DNA. Franklin’s inestimable contribution to this discovery, was never recognized, but little by little the history starts valuing his labor.

First we are going to explain some important things to understand the DNA in general and why it is important for us:

1. The human genome or genetic map is the total number of chromosomes of the body.
2. The chromosomes contain approximately 80.000 genes, responsibles of heritances
3. A gene is the physical, functional and fundamental unit of the inheritance. The importance of knowing the genome is that all the diseases have a genetic component.
4. A gene, it is a fragment of DNA as which it has the only sequence of base couples, which can use for difference a few genes of other one and fix his position in the chromosome.
5. The information of the genes has been decoded and allows to the science to know that diseases could have a person in his life, this knowledge could treat till now incurable diseases.
6. The most important thing of the chromosome is the molecule of DNA. Molecule of double propeller, with which every propeller is antiparallel and this formed by chemical compounds so called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three parts: group phosphate, desoxirribosa, and four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, thymine, and   cytosine .These components are connected.

 7. The DNA that forms the genome contains the necessary information to construct and to support life.
8. The genome is the whole DNA of an organism, included the genes, which take the proteins needed by the organism that determine the aspect, functioning, metabolism, resistance to infections and other diseases.
9. The genetic code comes determined by the order that the nitrogenous bases occupy.
10. The genetic code makes us as we are


This dicovery of DNA double helix is very important. But we have a problem because de genetic map isn’t complete. We are going to tell you what is the human genome project and why it is very important:

 It is a international programme of scientific collaboration which it objetive is have a basic knowledge of the complete human genetic dotation. This genetic information is founded in all the cells of the body encoded in the DNA.

The programme aims to identify all the genes of the core of the human cells, establish the place of the genes in the chromosome core and determined via the sequenciation.

 The objective is the secuentation of the human genome and representation is associate features human specific and diseases inherited with genes located in precise location of the chromosomes. The human genome project a knowledge without previous proportionate of the organization of the essential genes and chromosomes human. Promises to revolutionize  the treatment and prevention of many human diseases that penetrate the basic bioquimics phenomena that sustains.
 The human genome project is an international investigation that found select to mapping you the DNA sequence.
It is intended to register genes encoded the necessary information to build and sustain life.

Some objetives:


Some objetives:

-Identify approximately 100.000 human genes in the DNA

-Deterine the sequence of 3 billion os bases chemical oh the DNA

-Accumulae information of database

-To develop tools for data analysis
-The purpose is to provide the world with innovative tools for the treatment and prevention of diseases.
-The genetic map is a genetic tool  that it allows study the evolution and it could change the medicine.

-It allows the treatment of diseases until now uncured.
- With the knowledge of the human genome, we know the code before we could only configure the program.
- You could tell a person of the diseases that he could have.
This could change medicine forever giving a new power to cure especially in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases such as: alzheimer, parkinson, diabetes, cancer, heart problems, schizophrenia and all the complications that have a genetic origin.
-The Project has needed ethical, legal, social and human analysis.

But this problem has moral problems, such as genetic racism (any person is less than one for his genetic code), who can access this information and use it for other things than the cure of diseases ...



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5 comentarios

Jordan Jumpman -

Thats an interesting article. I knew some of them but mostly it was new to me. I enjoyed it quite a lot.Keep them coming, because you have a fan.
Jordan Jumpman

Elena M, Pilar y Rocío L -

To the teacher:
Yes, it has got a lot of polemic because people could use this biology advance to do bad things for it we need new standards of safety evaluation for this kind of radical research and protections from military or terrorist misuse and abuse because some groups worried the technology might be used to make biological weapons...
the creator has said he would like to try to make bacteria to produce fuel or to use in making better vaccines or to design algae that can vacuum up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
we need that the people use it for do medical advances and for many other good things, this is a great discovery and we can use it to make great things, to facilitate our life and improve the enviroment...
because of this we need a lot of security.

pijolo -

for me, is the DNA structure (Francis Crick) because for this several problems of diseases that hhad not cure, now these diseases have cure.

Elena Rocío -

The most important scientific discovery for me is penicillin because it save a lot of life, but some people are allergics.

Lucas -

Last week, scientists succeeded in getting an artificial life cell. The did it "building" the genoma of the cell and putting it into an empty cell.
This is the first step to build selected life, and it has brougth an enormous polemic because of what can be done now.
What do you think about this step?
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